Volume 37, No. 2 (March-April, 2003)

(3-8) On the Role of the Hypotheses in Zoological Investigations. Panteleyev P. A. — A large amount of empiric data accumulated in zoology needs generalization. Generalizations are more productive when there are some hypotheses. A hypothesis confirmed many times becomes a conception, which elucidates the further obtaining of knowledge. For example, with the help of two conceptions, the Evolutionary Role of the Sexes, and the Ecological Bioenergetics, one can see the scientific achievements obtained on the basis of the hypotheses, the development of which led to these conceptual ideas.
Key words: evolution, sex, ecological bioenergetics, rodents, variation, origin of species.

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(9-16) New and little known Species of Cynipides (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) from Ukraine. Diakontshuk L. A. — Four species of phytophagous cynipids (Phanacis (Phanacis) karadagica sp. n. from stems of Centaurea solstitialis Linnaeus, Aulacidea lutigae sp. n. from stems of Atriplex sp., A. rubi sp. n. from stems of Rubus idaeus Linnaeus and Isocolus carthami sp. n. from flower heads of Carthamus lanatus Linnaeus) are described. Five species of cynipids are found for the first time in Ukraine: Phanacis (Phanacis) carthami Gussakovsky, Aulacidea macula Forsius, A. subterminalis Niblett, Aylax oraniensis Barbotin, A. minor Hartig; a new host plant is recorded for Isocolus tauricus Diakontshuk.
Key words: Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, new species, Ukraine.

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(17-22) Life Cycle and Preliminary Stages of Ochyrotylus helvinus in Middle Asia. Isakov Yu. M. — The preliminary stages of O. helvinus Jakovlev, 1885 are unknown. Collection and observation were made during 1985–1988 in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Observation of eggs and larvae development were in the nature and in the laboratory cages. Distribution of the species is reconsidered more precisely, and its northern margin in Central Asia is determined. Adults hibernate and start to emerge in April. Oviposition period continues from May up to July. Young specimens emerge since the middle of July. There are two generations in a year. Hibernation starts in the middle of August. Each clutch contains 12 eggs positioned in chess order. Eggs develop 2–4 days. Size of eggs is 0.95 ť 0.65 mm, diameter of cover is 0.42 mm. Calligonum spp. (Polygonaceae), Peganum harmala (Peganaceae), Salsola australis (Chenopodiaceae), and Stipagrostis pennata (Poaceae) are the host plants. Preliminary stages of O.helvinus are described.
Key words: Ochyrotylus helvinus, preliminary stages, Middle Asia, area, oviposition, life cycle, host plants.

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(23-30) Centuries old dynamics of number of mouse-Similar rodents in the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve. Selyunina Z. V. — The analysis of the results of counts of mouse-similar rodents in the reserve shows that periodical fluctuations in populations numbers of these animals exist. Winter hibernating species show no evident cyclic dynamics. Depending on this interval 3 cycles exist: a short-term, a ten-year term, and a 50-year term. The weather dynamics (1936–2001) also show the 10-year and 50-year term cycles similarly to the mouse-similar mammals.
Key words: micromammals, mouse-similar rodents, dynamics of number, cycle, meteorology.

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(31-39) Bats of Tribe Myotini (Mammalia) in the Middle Dnipro Region: Species Composition, Distribution, and Abundance. Zagorodniuk I. V., Godlevska O. V. — The tribe is represented in the region by four species. Original data and collected samples as well as published data verify presence of two Leuconoe species, namely L. dasycneme, and L. daubentonii. Two other species represented genus Myotis (M. «mystacinus» and M. nattereri) are recorded by single records each. Assumptions on the occurrence of two more species of Myotis (M. myotis and M. bechsteinii) are erroneous. Both Leuconoe species are known to occur in both winter and autumn-summer time, and they are considered sedentary species. Winter records of Myotini originate mainly from artificial caves of the steep right bank of Dnipro River. Total numbers of species records (L. daubentonii, L. dasycneme, M. nattereri, M. «mystacinus») form a ratio 66 : 14 : 6 : 4, and numbers of their specimens are 667 : 61 : 29 : 5 respectively.
Key words: bats, fauna, Myotis, Leuconoe, abundance, Ukraine.

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(41-50) Current State of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetso) Population in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Godovanets B. J. — In Ukraine, the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos Linnaeus, 1758) regularly breeds only in the Carpathians. In that region, the bird is rather poorly studied. A systematic rank of the golden eagle carpathian breeding population is still undetermined. In 1970–1999, the species was recorded 109 times in 64 sites in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Most records are in Chornohora and Svydovets massifs. The Carpathian breeding population of the golden eagle is about 10–15 pairs. During recent years, a positive tendency in the Carpathian population is registered. Birds begin to breed in March. Fledglings leave nest from the mid July to the end of August. The main feed consists of birds, mammals and carrion. To conserve the golden eagle in the region, a set of measures should to be implemented as follows: studies of the species, finding and protection of nests, feeding up birds in winter, attraction with artificial nests, artificial reproduction, etc.
Key words: golden eagle, Ukrainian Carpatians, distribution, member, feeding.

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(51-59) Formation of the altricial type development of birds. Kovtun M. F., Shatkovska O. V., Shatkovsky Yu. V. — The revision of traditional hypothesis of origin of the types development birds, using data on the limbs skeletal and skull embryogenesis of some altricial and precocial birds (Corvus frugilegus, Riparia riparia, Coturnix japonica, Larus argentatus), was carried out. It was shown that the appearance and the development (to stage 36) of the skeletal elements limbs of altricial and precocial birds pass synchronously. This fact refutes the assertion that development of the skeleton of altricial birds is more intensive and early. After stage 36 the substitution of the cartilaginous tissue by bone one is more intensive in the precocial birds. Perhaps that the reorganization of the embryogenesis of altricial birds lain in change of last stages of embryonic development.
Key words: altricial birds, precocial birds, limbs skeleton, skull, embriogenesis.

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(61-65) Adjusted Description of Subeucalanus subtenuis and Subeucalanus mucronatus Males from the Arabian Sea. Prusova I. Yu. — Males of Subeucalanus subtenuis (Giesbrecht, 1888) and S. mucronatus (Gies-brecht, 1888) were stained according to the Fleminger's (1973) method and identified based on the patterns of integumental pores of the cephalothorax and abdomen. Morphological features of each spe-cies are examined. The difference between two species in mandibular palp setation is revealed. Other available descriptions of these species were analyzed.
Key words: Copepoda, Subeucalanus subtenuis, S. mucronatus, morphological description, Arabian Sea.

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(67-72) Transmission triggers and pathways in Gyrodactylus sphinx (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae). Dmitrieva E. V. — The ratio between the different ontogenetic stages of gyrodactylids transferred from infected to uninfected hosts was studied. 72% of transmitted individuals have a functional male reproductive system and can reproduce only sexually. Therefore, in Gyrodactylus sphinx Dmitrieva et Gerasev, 2000 transmission mainly involves individuals with a functional male reproductive system. It is likely that the sexual maturation of gyrodactylids provides the trigger for migratory behaviour. The restricted occurrence of G. sphinx on one host species in nature is a result of innate host specificity. Both the behavioural patterns of G. sphinx and physiological parameters of the fish uphold the search for a suitable host.
Key words: Gyrodactylidae, Gyrodactylus, transmission, trigger, host specificity.

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(73-76) New Data on Morphology, Biology and Ecology of the Amphipod Jassa spp. (Amphipoda, Ishyroceridae) from the Black Sea. Grintsov V. A. — Mass settlement of the amphipods Jassa spp., rare species for the area, were studied on collectors of a mussels farm exposed at the depths 0–12 m in Laspi Bay (Southern Crimea, the Black Sea). This study lasted from Oktober 1993 to February 1994. The community of Jassa spp., new for the coastal waters of the Crimea was found. Using an abundant material (1150 specimens), some details were added to the knowledge of the dimension range and the morphology of adult and juveniles amphipods.
Key words: Amphipoda, morphology, biology, ecology, community, Jassa.

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(77-79) A New Species of the Genus Typhlodromus (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae) from South-Ost Crimea. Kolodochka L. A. — Typhlodromus difficilis Kolodochka, sp.n. from juniper (Juniperus rufescens Link) is described and figured (type locality: Crimea, Karadagh State Reserve). A new species is closely related to Typhlodromus beglarovi Kuznetsov, 1984 and T. laurae Arutunjan, 1974. It differs from them by the ratio of lengths of setae PV and PM3 (in T. beglarovi setae PV longer then PM3, in T. laurae these setae almost equal in length as well as in the new species PM3 shorter then PV), and by relative length of setae PL2 and PM2 (in T. beglarovi seta PM2 is equal or shorter than PL2, in T. laurae seta PM2 is shorter than PL2, whereas in the new species seta PM2 is longer then seta PL2), and by some other minor characters.
Key words: Phytoseiidae, Typhlodromus, new species, Ukraine.

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(81-84) The State of the Fat Body and the Lifetime of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Invaded by Varroa jacobsoni. Nemkova S. N., Rudenko E. V. — The fat body cells of the honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 is shown to be reduced at the invasion intensity 1–2 (1153.01 ± 139.05 mkm2) and 3–4 mites Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans, 1904 per bee (952.68 ± 137.72 mkm2) comparing to uninvaded bees (3030.31 ± 336.87 mkm2), and as the consequence, the lifetime of the bees invaded by mite decreases. The increasing of extensiveness of the invasion in bee families raise up to 15.61 ± 1.18% (in September) that leads to 30.4% shortening of the lifetime of invaded bees on, and 12.5% shortening of uninvaded comparing to individuals from the colonies with the extensiveness of the mite infestation 1.03 ± 0.31%.
Key words: Varroa mite, honey bee, fat body, lifetime.

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(85-87) Two new species of the genus Exochus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Metopiinae) from Ukraine. Tolkanitz V. I. — Two species of the genus Exochus Gravenhorst are described. E. carens Tolkanitz, sp. n. from Mykolayiv Oblast’ fits near E. caudatus Kusigemati in the propodeum areola fused with the basal and apical fields, and the costulae non-expressed, differing by the ovipositor shorter, non-exceeding the posterior margin of abdomen and by the yellow pattern in upper portion of the face and darker legs. E. latiareolus Tolkanitz, sp. n. from Donetsk and Zaporizhzhya Oblast’ fits near E. consimilis Holmgren in the coloration of body and legs, differing by the areola wider than the 2nd lateral field of propodeum and the nervulus moderately postfurcal.
Key words: Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Exochus, new species, Ukraine.

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(88-91) On the hybridisation between the crested (Triturus cristatus) and Danube (Triturus dobrogicus) newts in the Transcarpathians. Morozov-Leonov S. Yu., Mezhzherin S. V., Kurtyak Th. Th. — The analysis of the specimens genetic structure from the parapatry zone between the crested Triturus cristatus laurenti, 1768 and Danube Triturus dobrogicus kiritzescu, 1903 newts has unambiguously confirmed the fact of these species hybridisation. In the sample from the western Uzhgorod body-waters have been find 8 juvenile crested newts and 1 adult female who was an hybrid. This was been confirmed by their heterozygous genotypes on the diagnostic loci Es-1 č Ěĺ-1.
Key words: hybridisation, newts, allozyme variation.

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(92-95) A Find of the Skilfish Erilepis zonifer (Anoplopomatidae) at the Kuril Islands. Orlov A. M., Biryukov I.A. — An unusual bottom capture of the young skilfish Erilepis zonifer (Anoplopomatidae) 57 cm long in coastal waters at the northern Kuril Islands is documented. Juvenile skilfish inhabit surface waters of the high sea, whereas the shift to benthic life pattern occurs mostly when fish reach length over 60 cm. Photograph of specimen caught, its morphologic characters and data on stomach content are provided.
Key words: Erilepis zonifer, skilfish, morphology, diet.

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(97-99) Feeding ecology of Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, during spring stopover in the Sivash Bay (Ukraine). Khomenko S. V. — Curlew Sandpipers, Calidris ferruginea Pontoppidan, 1763, gathering in the galinic part of the Sivash are able to efficiently forage on Brine Shrimps (Artemia salina) using it as a main food. It has been proved, that the birds feed exclusively in day-time (up to 80% of the observation time). Additional energy income makes on average 146.3 ± 38.4 kJ/day. At the expense of this, sandpipers increase body mass at an average rate of 4.3 ± 1.1 g/day. During 5–6 day’s stay at the Sivash their total body mass increases up to 33–41% compared to the average lean (winter) body mass. It is the Brine Shrimps, highly abundant and easily available food, that attracts tens of thousand migratory Curlew Sandpipers to the Sivash.
Key words: Curlew Sandpiper, feeding, Brine Shrimps, body mass increase, Sivash, Ukraine.

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